History of Grateley
Part nine: Victorian Period 1837-1901 (4 of 4)
The Inhabitants of Grateley in the mid to late Victorian Era
The first Census of England was carried out in 1801 with limited information of the inhabitants and was mainly a head-counting exercise for taxes and manpower for war. At that time the total population for England and Wales was approximately 9 million.
The landowners in Grateley are not identified in the censuses as they were all, almost without exception, absentee landlords and would be recorded elsewhere.
At this time there were 35 houses in Grateley, one of which was uninhabited. The total population (154) comprised 81 males and 68 females with 5 people living in barns, sheds or other. These latter 5 were not identified by name or sex.
The housing was generally described as cottage, private house and farm. Seldom was there a name associated with houses in Grateley and it is difficult to identify the location. Cottages were really tied houses inhabited by agricultural labourers (Cottars or Bordars in earlier times).
Some examples of the population:
William Henry Gale; born in Grateley, (61) farmed 970 acres of Grateley Farm worked by 22 Agricultural Labourers. The landowner was probably Mrs Pickering. He was a widower with 2 daughters and one son (Mortimer, 12) and had 3 servants. Henry Gale was related to Peter Gale, yeoman farmer, who bought a small amount of land in the distribution associated with the Enclosure Act of 1798.
Manor Farm House; of 530 acres was farmed by Charles Drew (47) employing 9 Labourers, 7 boys and 5 women. He lived there with his wife, Elizabeth (41), 4 daughters and a niece. The household was completed with a cook (Lucy Mills 23) and Housemaid (Helen Spreadbury 19).
Mary Blake (63); was the Innkeeper at the Plough Inn Grateley with lodger Jacob Hack, a woodsman. The brewer, who did not live in the Inn, was William Nose. Nose could be a misspelling of the family name Noyes who were a family of brewers in nearby parishes.
School House; Mary Ann Crook, born in Tidworth, (21) was the Schoolmistress. Was she the first Schoolmistress of the new school opened in 1845? She had a lodger, Anne Seward (71) who was a widow and a pauper.
Shop; James Bennett (42); was the shopkeeper who ran it with his wife Sarah (47) and daughter Sarah L (21). Sons Charles (18) and Jesse (11) were Agricultural labourers. Fanny (5) and Matilda (3) completed the family.
Parsonage House; John Batt (63) retired Farmer who was a widower lived here with his Housekeeper, Mary Ann Noyes (53) and one servant. The Batt family is mentioned in the parish records from 1689.
The Parish House; was occupied by Samuel Miles (33), his wife Eliza,and children Sarah, Tom and Charles 5,3 and 1 respectively and a stepson John Brickwood an agricultural labourer. There is no indication why it was called a parish house. Another Parish House was occupied by William Miles (24) with his wife Anne (26) and Letitia (7) and Ann (5).
Grateley Farm House; I believe that this was the present Home Farm. It was occupied by Charles Childs, farm bailiff, his wife, Mary Ann (51) and son William (16).
The following people are picked at random from a few unnamed cottages within the confines of the old village:
Charles Childs (jnr) (28); was a woodman with his wife Emily (30) and son Tom (1). He achieved some little notoriety later when he died at the age of 87 whilst out ferreting. His passing was reported in the Andover Advertiser.
Sophia Compton (33); a servant, and James Coster (19) a Gardener.
The Master Carpenter, Richard Fiander (53), born in Winterslow, Wilts, lived with his wife Maria (59) probably in Georgia Lane (now Chapel Lane). This is the Richard William Bloxham Fiander previously mentioned in relation to the church of St Leonard. He seems to have been a man of influence. He was even the enumerator for this census on Grateley. On 18th November 1856 RWB Fiander made a declaration of messuage on the Public House, the Plough, Grateley being the property of William Henry Gale.
William Thomas (30); a cattle dealer living with his wife and 4 children.
Park House; was an extra parochial Inn belonging to Wm. Gilbert of Shipton and occupied by Geo. Gearing. Some 9 people are recorded as living there.
In nearby Amport the 14th Marquis of Winchester, John Paulet (sometimes Powlet) had just succeeded to the title. He cleared the original village around the church and moved much to Fox to create a private road but unable to move the church had to allow the villagers access. In 1845 the estate comprised some 2,000 acres but by 1878 was 6500 acres including lands in all the neighbouring villages, including Grateley. Grateley Manor estate of some 410 acres was owned by him but was sold in 1882, by auction, for £7600 (c. £19 per acre). Quite a loss when the price of land some ten years before was in the region of £53 per acre (Amport, Marigold Routh). Much of this depreciation could have been due to the opening of the great wheat fields of the prairies in the Americas resulting in cheap wheat and corn.
The railway station (opened May 1st 1857), about a mile from the church, was now established and was a focus for development of a new settlement with the construction of the Stationmaster’s house, railway cottages and inn. The records do show the place of birth of some people as ‘Grateley Station’ being, I am sure, an area rather than the actual station.
This development was also reflected in the variation in occupations such as signalmen, stationmaster, platelayers, porters etc. instead of the universal agricultural labourers that seemed to make up the whole population of Grateley in the past.
The village had now expanded to a population of 226 inhabitants and comprised of 1541 acres of land.
Grateley Farm; was now occupied by Thomas Patten Galpin.
Manor Farm; had also changed hands and was now occupied by Charles Frederick Chubb.
John Cutting; a baker, grocer and beer retailer appears. Grateley Station?
Plough Inn; was in the hands of Edward Adcock a machinist and Victualler.
Station Inn; run by George Harrison (33).
School; Mrs Mary Brant was now the ‘Free’ Schoolmistress.
Station Master; Maurice Lovelock
Grateley Farm House; William Boutcher and Alfred Lambert, Farm bailiff. This is the first reference to Boutcher (a Devon man) in Grateley that I have come across.
Merchants; Thomas Hy. Edwd. Compton was a coal and corn merchant. William Stephenson Scott was also a miller and coal and corn merchant. The mill was situated just north of the railway line to the west of Cholderton Road. It was still represented on the ordinance survey map of 1901. The mill had the sails removed and was run by steam until the boiler blew up. It was then run by diesel engine until used as a store.
Baker and Grocer; George Hoare (probably from what is now Elm Cottages or Meadow View). The Hoare family came from Wherwell originally.
Rector; Rev. William Stone MA. Prior to him Rev. Christopher Dodson, MA, held the living from 1819 to 1877 and was always non-resident. The living was worth £284 and was in the patronage of Rev. Baron Paravicini. Between July and December 1871 (after the census of 1871) Henry Hazard was appointed curate in charge for the parish by bishop Wilberforce.
Grateley House; William Boutcher, gentleman and widower, aged 86 lived here with: Mary Lalone 25, his grand daughter, Anne Bowden, 73, his sister-in-law and her daughter, Mary, 45. Fanny Bonner was his secretary.
Interestingly there were two children, Emily and Vincent Ricketts, 12 and 10 respectively: schoolchildren from the River Plate living there at this time (or at least on the day of the census). Ellen Weeks, 44, upper housemaid; Charlotte Sexton, 25, housemaid; Elizabeth Huntley, 20, under housemaid; Thomas Bowman, 44, butler and, finally Henry Hillier, 23, footman completed the household.
Some household, but compare that with Amport House at the same time.
Lady L Paulet, 21 years old, lived there with a companion and was served by a butler and housekeeper, a lady’s maid, cook, 2 housemaids, kitchen and scullery maids and a footman. This is not counting the gardeners, ostlers, gamekeepers, etc. At least all of the wealthier people created jobs where there would be little other employment.
Plough Inn; since the last census the Inn had burned down and been rebuilt. “We understand that the destructive fire which occurred on Friday 1st October 1875 at the Plough Inn originated in a defective flue from an oven that was being used that morning, and it is stated by those who have since inspected the premises, that it is only a matter of surprise such a calamity had not happened before, there being but very slight protection between the heated chimney running from the oven’s mouth and the wood work connected with the upper rooms.
The premises which was the property of Mr Boutcher, were entirely destroyed as well as the whole of the furniture and stock” (Andover Advertiser: 1875).
The Inn was still run by Edward Adcock (36), who was a man of many talents, being a Licensed Victualler, Grocer, Innkeeper and Whitesmith according to his census return, with help from his wife Amelia, (33). A niece, Mary Ann Collins (7) and Domestic Servant, Fanny Cook, completed the household.
The Village Shop; the village shop was now also a bakery and would seem to be somewhat enlarged as the number of inhabitants indicate. The shop run by Joseph Follett (Grocer and baker, aged 46) and his wife Kate (27) had several other inhabitants: Mary Brant (42) who was a Government Schoolmistress (Certificated), Frank (11), Harry (10) and Percy (7) her sons, Adelaide Gunn, a boarder, who was a Government Assistant Schoolmistress and Elizabeth Goddard (14) a domestic servant. Part of the shop was occupied by Luke Phillimore (35), an Agricultural Labourer and his wife Ann (36). Herbert Lockyer (20), a clerk, lodged with them.
The Rectory; over the intervening 20 years the ‘dilapidated’ parsonage must have been upgraded to a rectory. Thomas John Whitworth (32) was resident as the Rector accompanied by his Housekeeper Sarah Smith (60).
Gollard Farm; Henry Butcher had 175 acres run by 3men and 1 boy.
Gollard Cottages; there were at least 3 cottages at Gollards with Wm. Stokes, a Farm labourer in one, Hy. Barringer, a Colporteur (Book) (distributor of Bibles for a society) and Wm. Cox, a platelayer in the third.
The census covered: the Post Office on Wallop Road (probably in what is now ‘Bridge Cottage’): Railway Station and Cottages, the Public House, Grateley Down Cottages, the Village including the houses in the lane leading to Gollard and the Cottages at Gunville.
There were 48 houses, 21 of which had less than 5 rooms, an increase of 13 dwellings in 50 years. Compare that with the explosion of development over the last 20 years.
The total population was 262 comprising 149 males and 112 females. There was also a house on wheels and some tented Gypsies.
Post Office; the sub-postmistress was Emily Hillier.
Manor Farm; Leonard Pickering was now the farmer and probably landowner (related to Mrs Pickering of 1838?)
Railway Inn; George Harrison (63) was still the landlord
Station House; the Station House must have been a reasonable size to house Henry James West (41), Stationmaster; his wife, Clarissa (32), Reginald (15) Railway worker; Frederick (8), Jane (3), Francis (4), Clarissa (2) and a visitor, Daisy Henry.
Railway Cottages; Fred Horne (51) a signalman lived here with wife Anne (49) and William (27) platelayer, Harry (17) Horseman on farm, Walter (15) Railway Engine Cleaner, Sidney (13) Farm lad, Philip, Charles and Emily 11,9 and 4 years old respectively. In addition they had a boarder of 23 years of age who was a platelayer.
Grateley House; Mary Bowden (65 and William Boutcher’s niece), a widow living on private means, lived there with 4 servants: Ernest Harman (29) a Butler; Anne Bowen (28), Ruth Bowen (16), Julia Woodlands (21, cook) and Ellen Marsh (28).
Plough Inn; William Beale (50) and his wife Jane (50) now run the pub. Ivy Villa, Francis Roberts, a widow, lived here on private means with three boarders and one servant.
The Rectory; Frederick de Paravicini who, presumably, was related to Baron Paravicini in whose gift the living was held.
Hope Cottage; occupied by Follet a baker and grocer. This is the first time that Hope Cottage is named in the census.
Gunville Cottages; two families lived here.
Home Farm; occupied by Henry Waters (44) (first Chairman of the Parish Meeting in 1894), farm bailiff and his family. This is the first time the name ‘Home Farm’ is officially used. One of Home Farm Cottages was occupied by Absolom Heats (52). Were Home Farm Cottages the present Rose and Jasmine Cottages?
House on Wheels; occupied by three men, Ernest Whiting, Walter Hay and George Goodchild: all Traction Engine engineers.
The seven Gypsies living in tents were all Hawkers.
‘Navvies’ Bungalows; there was a workforce housed in the ‘Navvies Bungalows’. J Miller, Foreman Navvy (sic), his wife and daughter lived there with 19 ‘Navvies’. Presumably the second track and/or the sidings for the railway were being constructed through Grateley station at that time. Were the bungalows temporary buildings, as there seems to be no signs of them now? A lot of railway workers were also housed at Down Barn cottages where William Saunders seemed to be involved.
1894 saw the inauguration of the Parish Meeting: Parish Councils were created much later (Local Government Act 1933, which was not invoked by Grateley until 1947). The first meeting was held at the School Room on December 4th of that year to elect a chairman.
Just for the record I give the names of those present: Rev. F de Paravicini, WE Boutcher Esq., Messrs Shearing, Waters, Harrison, Eames, Chears, King, S. Bailey, Wells, G. Bailey, Ayres, Kimber, D. Hewitt, Saunders, Sutton, Ford, Kneller, Spreadbury, Green, Compton, Sherwood, Robinson, Hillier, Bacon, Penton, C.Farthing, Turton and Childs.
Henry Waters was elected Chairman after three other nominees declined.
The next meeting was held 10 days later and immediately proposed to create allotments on the Dell field for use by the villagers, thus partially reversing the enclosure of 400 acres some 100 or more years previously. At the same meeting the trustees for the ‘Earle’s Dole’ and ‘Pyles Gift’ charities were elected.
In July of the next year 131 lbs of cheese (at 7½d per lb) was distributed to 31 villagers and in December distribution of 160 lbs (at 7½ per lb) of beef to a similar number of villagers, all from the Earle’s Dole charity.
The Parish Meeting elected WE Boutcher as Chairman in 1896 and thus he remained for the next 25 years.
At the meeting of 1901 there was discussion about that part of the Station Private Road between the Church corner and Lord Lawrence’s bar-gate. Mr Leonard Pickering, of Manor Farm and major landowner, was prepared to give up his rights over that portion of the road to the District Council, but was not disposed to incur expense by making up or widening the road before doing so.
From this it would seem that the private road from the village to the station had more than one owner. It also poses the question: ”Where was Lord Lawrence’s Bar-gate”? The Church Corner is easily identified and would have been the site known as the Green Gate in documents relating to the map associated with the commutation of tithes to rental in 1832.
Only one year later the Parish Meeting were informed of the bad state of the new Station Road owing to the incessant traffic of Traction Engines, which had also cut up the Gunville Road. I find it difficult to believe that there were that many traction engines rushing to and fro as there were only three traction engine engineers.
Grateley looked forward to the 20th century with a sense of a community generated by involvement in the Parish Meeting, which was possible for all members of the parish. The influence of the general public was not great but was much greater than ever before and would result in accelerated change in the immediate surroundings.
All text and images©Grateley Parish Council