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The History of Grateley

Part six: Victorian Period 1837 - 1901 (1 of 4)

This era was the beginning of periods of reasonable stability and advances in technology. This gradually came to Grateley in the form of the railway with the attendant increase in trade and the appearance of traction engines in the fields. A complaint, recorded in the Parish Meeting Minutes in the latter part of the century, that ‘the incessant use of traction engines was ruining the road to the station and Gunville Drove’ gives some indication that Grateley may have been well equipped with modern equipment.

The names of the fields and roads became established prior to this period due to the delineation of the boundaries of the newly enclosed common lands.

The Great Road was the main road from Salisbury to Grateley and Monxton and thence Andover. It was made up of the part of the Portway passing Manor Farm dairy, below Quarley Hill and along the Drove to Skew Road where it joined the present Monxton Road which was then known as Amport Lane, which had many curves and high banks.

Gollards Lane was more of a Lane than the present track.

Berry Lane ran from The Green (at the junction of the High Street) to the part of the Portway joining the Great Road.

Gunville Drove ran from Amport Lane to the Great Road.

Cholderton Road was called the Road from Shipton to Stockbridge House, shortened to the Stockbridge Road.

There were two Wallop Lanes, one running from the village passed the (Pigeons) pond and across the Stockbridge Road; the other was from the junction of the Stockbridge Road near what is now Campbel Close, joining the other Wallop Lane at the present War memorial in Wallop.

Georgia Lane ran from the Plough to (obviously) Georgia Farm. Although it is known locally as Chapel Lane it is still Georgia Lane on the computer program, Autoroute 2000!

Salisbury Lane ran from the Green Gate, on the edge of the village, passed Peter’s Piece (by the Village Hall) and to the West, slightly to the north of the present

Station Road, as far as the Roman road to the western edge of the Parish.

The Roman Road from the Hampshire Gap to Down Barns was only identified as such for the commutation of tithes, being just over 4 acres in area.

Names of fields such as Cocksford, Peter’s Piece, The Ten Acres (actually nearer 20) and the Dell, North Fields (Upper, Middle and Lower) and Church fields, and many others, still retain the same name, shape and area as over 150 years ago as can be seen on the aerial photograph of the village of 1970 when compared with a map of 1838 produced for the commutation of tithes.

Peter’s Orchard, opposite the Plough, still retains its original (pre 1778) name even though it became part of Wheeler’s farm at some stage. Much later a cottage held the local Post Office manned by Mrs Warren before demolition to make way for the present house at which time she transferred, including the Post Office, to the High Street.

Commutation of Tithe Lands, 1838
It was in 1838 that the lands of Grateley parish were commuted from tithe lands to rental. Not, as described in ‘Old Grateley’ by Tim Jones, ‘Tythe awards’. I think that there was some confusion between commuting tithes to rental in 1838 and the allocation of land by Act of Enclosure in 1778. A similar error appears on page 12 of his book when referring to ‘- the enclosure of 1832’.

Incidentally, there is another misconception on page 9 in referring to ‘two to the plough’. This is not a full employment scheme of having two men to the plough. The plough was a measure of land, being that area of land that could be worked by a team of eight oxen (Domesday Book). The two referred to is the provision of two mounted soldiers, for every plough, for the King’s use in time of war: sometimes avoided by making a payment in lieu.

The Parish consisted of 1,506 Acres and 2 Roods, all of which were subject to tithes.

The major landowners at this time being:
Rev. Horace Hayes - 958 Acres
Mrs MA Pickering - 411 Acres
Rev C Dodson - 47 Acres with a further 42 acres of Glebe land as rector.

A minor landowner was Richard Cox with 44 Acres.

There was no common land within the Parish (see Enclosure Act above) and there was no land exempt from the payment of tithes.

The whole quantity of land cultivated for:
Arable was 1,365 Acres and 2 Roods.
Meadow or pasture 91 Acres.
Woodland, 50 Acres.

The Glebe Lands of the Parish, which if not in the hands of the owner, would be subject to Tithe, amount to 40 Acres, which Glebe belonged to the Rev. Christopher Dodson as Rector of Grateley Parish at that time.

At this time (1838) the gross Rent - Charge payable to the Tithe owners in lieu of tithes for the Parish of Grateley was £273 - 5s.

The value was expressed as imperial bushels, and decimal parts thereof, of wheat, barley and oats.
Wheat @ 7s and ¼d per bushel. 259.46588 bushels.
Barley @ 3s and 11½d per bushel.460.21052 bushels.
Oats @ 2s and 9d per bushel. 662.42424 bushels.

The determination of the measure of a bushel to five decimal places would seem to be pedantic, to say the least. I suppose it was purely a calculation to suit some accountant. For those younger than I, a Bushel was a measure of grain or fruit of 8 gallons, equivalent to ca 36.4 litres.

1859 Hampshire Gazetteer
Note. The Rectory valued at £284 was in the patronage of the executors of the late Rev. Wm. Dodson and the incumbency of the Rev. Christopher Dodson, MA, who resides at Penton Mewsey, where he was also rector, the Parsonage in Grateley being a small dilapidated house. (See Civil War)

Farmers: Wm. Boutcher and Mortimer Gale, the latter being the son of William Henry Gale and probably grandson of Peter Gale who purchased land in 1778 as an allotment from the Enclosure Act.

Shop and Plough Inn: John Cutting

Parish Clerk: R.Wm. Bloxham Fiander Churchwarden and carpenter. Bloxham and Fiander seem to have been very close for Fiander to use ALL of the names of Bloxham, just tacking his own surname on at the end. Richard Fiander was born in 1797, married Elizabeth and had a son, William Thomas, on 26th October 1828. Rd.Wm. Bloxham came to Grateley from West (sometimes East) Dean when he was installed on the committee for the Act of Enclosure in Grateley for reasons that I am unable to determine.

School: Sarah Griffith

Stationmaster: James McLees.

Wheelwright etc. Wm. Pashant

Major Landowners now Mrs Mary Ann Pickering, Mrs CL Hayes (widow of Rev H Hayes and aunt of the 1st Lord Lawrence) and the Marquis of Winchester.

In the nearby parish of Monxton the trades seemed to be a little more diverse than Grateley in boasting two tailors, a shoemaker, a female (Mary Wild) blacksmith and a farrier in addition to a saddler and a brewer.

It seems that female blacksmiths were not uncommon as the blacksmith in Quarley was also a woman (Matilda Holloway). The population of the parish of Quarley was greater (179) than Grateley (154) as was Thruxton (267) with Amport even more populous at 745 inhabitants in 1859.

The nearby town of Andover was probably a major outlet for the agricultural produce of Grateley. It was probably considered quite a place with the four major streets lighted by gas from the Gas Works, constructed in 1838 at a cost of £3,500 raised in £10 shares.

A further attraction could have been the 33 pubs situated in those four main streets that were probably full on the numerous market and fair days. Four brewers situated in East, London, Chantry and High Streets served these pubs.

The Town Hall & Corn Exchange, built in 1825 at a cost of £5,000, was at the centre where fairs and markets were held.

There was a weekly (Fridays) market for corn, cattle and swine, etc.

There were annual fairs for horses cattle and cheese etc, held on Mid-Lent Friday and Saturday and on May 13th.

There was a large annual wool market held in June when more than thirty thousand fleeces were pitched for sale.

A large sheep fair was held on November 17th with a fair for horses, cheese and hops etc on the following day.
Silk, velvet and shaloons were manufactured here.

Communications

Stage Coach
The thought that stagecoaches ran through Grateley and use made of the Roadhouse in Chapel Lane (Georgia Lane) is, to my mind, doubtful as Grateley was out of the way for travel from London to the West. Georgia Lane was just a track to Georgia Farm and the track, or lane, is not even shown on the ordinance survey map of 1901 whereas the track to Georgia Farm from Fox is quite clearly shown. Chapel Lane was not adopted until much later.

There is some evidence that the Roadhouse may have been two, or even, three terraced cottages that were made into one house in the mid 1800s with the brick-and-flint facings. Even recently, about 30 years ago, there were two front doors.

Admittedly there was a stable (now Stable Cottage), set apart from the house, but was really only suitable to house a trap and stabling for a pair of horses at most. This stabling seems to have been an integral part of the cottages next door, now Vine Cottage.

I was interested to learn that the stagecoach era in England had a very short life of some 20 years during the 1830s to 1850s. Only the well-to-do could afford to travel by coach as the cost was something like one shilling and sixpence per mile and between 3d and 6d for post boys. There was need to change horses roughly every 20 miles and therefore quite a network was required and I feel that Grateley was not in that network as was Stockbridge.
 
It is recorded that the Grosvenor Arms Hotel was a posting house on the great thoroughfare in Stockbridge, having a good bridge built in 1799, at the junction of the roads from Basingstoke and Winchester to Salisbury.

The advent of the railway would have sounded the death knell for the stagecoach for every reason such as speed, convenience, comfort and cost.

The Railway
The London & South Western Railway was opened in 1840 to Southampton, and had since (up to 1859) been extended to Dorchester and Weymouth. This line between London and Southampton cost about £2,500,000, or about £30,000 per mile.

It entered Hampshire at Farnborough and passed through the county in a serpentine course to Basingstoke, Winchester, Southampton, Ringwood etc.

Branch lines connected to Portsmouth and Gosport, Romsey and Andover and Salisbury, presumably through Grateley.

It is of passing interest that the Andover & Redbridge Railway, or Andover Canal Railway Bill was passed in 1858. It was proposed that the railway follow the bank of the canal in the Test valley to Redbridge where it would join the railway from Southampton to Dorchester. At Romsey it was to cross the Salisbury to Portsmouth line. At Andover it connected with the line that ran to Basingstoke and London. This line did open and ran to Andover Town station where the supermarket, Safeway (now Sainsbury's), and the roundabout now is. The double-gated level crossing held up traffic several times a day when the road was the main road to London from the West.

I have memories of the train from a troopship at Southampton docks to Andover Town and thence by lorry to Barton Stacey transit camp having come from Egypt in mid-winter.

An interesting fact popped up whilst searching for other information on this period. The House of Commons rejected a projected broad gauge railway from Salisbury to Southampton in 1857 with a considerable loss to the investors.

The Electric Telegraph wires were laid down on the main lines and many of the branch lines. Thus Grateley had instantaneous connection with the outside world at this time by the post and telegraph office on Grateley Station. 

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